I've heard various historical ideas of the 70th week and while I've considered them, I have been unconvinced. I want to thank you for your likewise detailed post, it has spurred me to question my beliefs and begin to dig in deeper to prove what I have held for some time.
I've struggled with the ancient history and dating because that's so far beyond my area and there are so many opinions. Part 1 of Messiah 2030 actually spurred me to my own study of when the crucifixion happened so as not to just accept off-hand teachings that I had no knowledge of myself. I've been bitten more times than I'd like to admit on that. I won't get into the details on that study here, but the punchline is that I came to the conclusion looking at scripture, some history, Rosetta Calendar, and the heavens through Stellarium of 30 AD. And it answered some questions I had accepted on faith that I was pleased to discover fit all the pieces together. I'm still struggling with combining work like the Star of Bethlehem and Dr. Mike Heiser's 3 BC birth with signs in the heavens that are compelling with 30 AD crucifixion, but with a 4 BC birth and the 30 AD crucifixion timeframe, Yeshua would have been 30 in the fall of 27 AD when He started His ministry as you mentioned and that would cover 3 Passover feasts as described in scripture. All that long-windedness to say your comments on the 69 weeks are compelling in light of what I've studied recently.
I agree with the accepted notion that 70 sevens is 490 years as seen in scripture. The final week of years is the completion of God's stated dealing with Israel for 490 years. 483 of those years I believe were fulfilled till the arrival of the Messiah and the start of His ministry as stated and I'm with you up to verse 26. Aside from these verses connecting Daniel, John and Yeshua's testimonies, I believe a plain reading of Daniel 9:24-27 outside any other scripture is fairly clear.
Verse 24 defines the context of who the prophecy is for, Israel and Jerusalem. It also defines the context of the scope of this prophecy (below).
Verse 25 speaks in relation to these contexts that part of the prophecy is from the commandment to restore and build Jerusalem to the Messiah the Prince (Meshiach Nagid) The time is 69 weeks (of years).
Verse 26 says after this first 69 weeks, (30 AD) The Messiah is cut off, not for Himself and (70 AD) the people of the prince that shall come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. You mentioned "prince" being nagid and that is accurate, but contextually in scripture it's used as the ruler, chief ruler, and many times paired with "over Israel." While we know prophetically Yeshua will fulfill that role in the millennium, we also know that the man of sin will pretend to fill that role as well. 2 Thessalonians 2:1-4 Given everything else in scripture, I have a hard time placing the people of Yeshua as the ones that destroy the city and sanctuary both historically and spiritually.
Verse 27 states that he (the prince that shall come, whose people were in 70 AD destroying the city and temple) will confirm a covenant with many for one week (completing the 70 weeks defined in the context of verse 24). In the midst of that week of years the prince that shall come will cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease, overspreading abominations to make it desolate throughout the time of the wrath of God to be poured out on the desolate. (This brings to mind Revelation 11:1-2 and the outer court read under foot for 42 months.) There is a flow of time that I see in these passages from the beginning of the 70 weeks to the final week. I also have issues with considering the idea that the Messiah only confirmed the new covenant/testament for a week. I don't quite understand how He caused the sacrifice and oblation to cease in 30 AD when it continued to 70 AD.
I don’t really hold any particular theory about the identity of the man of sin being from the West or Islamic or Jewish, but a lot of things fit together with a Jewish antichrist, whether originally from Israel, the West or Islamic. The latter seems less likely given the decades-long push of Jews out of these nations, but it's not out of the question.
To me, a plain reading of these four verses in context within these passages alone tell me several things. Daniel 9:2 shows us what started this vision of Israel's future. Daniel believed the prophet Jeremiah and the word God gave him that Israel would be in captivity for 70 years. He then proceeds to repent for his people who clearly turned their hearts from God and disobeyed. Daniel wanted to know the future of his people given the desolation of God's sanctuary (temple).
There is a clear flow of time from the definition of the context of the prophecy to the completion of the wrath of God:
1) The start of the 70 weeks are defined with the initial starting point following the 70 years of captivity in Babylon.
2) 69 weeks of years pass during which the city and temple are rebuilt
3) After the 69 weeks, at some undisclosed period of time, the Messiah is killed for our sins
4) After the 69 weeks, at some undisclosed period of time after the Messiah is killed, the people of the prince that shall come will destroy the city and sanctuary
5) The final week is introduced in which he, which was previously mentioned as being the prince of the people that destroyed the sanctuary at a previous time, will confirm a covenant with many for that week
6) In the midst of that week he will cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease and overspread abominations making it desolate
7) This will happen until the consummation and that determined shall be poured out upon the desolate.
The people of the prince that shall come destroy the city and temple. From the sequence of events, the Messiah is crucified 40 years before the destruction yet it is the people of the prince that shall come yet future that destroy the temple. Besides YLT, what other versions have past tense for the verb come? I looked at 15 translations that all show future tense for the prince's coming, not past. Let me be clear, I'm not a Greek or Hebrew scholar, but if you put הַבָּא from the masoretic text in Google translate, it translates it to "next," a future tense not past tense. See, I just proved how unscholarly I am!
If the people of the prince that shall come destroy the city and temple, then it follows that it is a different person from the Messiah that did already come and went to the Father's house, thus defining a new character after the Messiah and before the one that confirms the covenant for one week. It is this "he" that I believe is referred to, the prince of the people in 70 AD, that confirms a covenant for one week, which if we follow the sequence of these passages, is after 70 AD at some unspecified period of time. I won't get into the "he" coming from various places based on his people, I think that will become irrelevant when we start so see events unfold in the time before the abomination of desolation.
Let me clarify that I do not believe in a "7-year tribulation." I see no association scripturally with the 70th week of Daniel and tribulation. Quite the opposite, I think that Daniel, John and Yeshua clarify the unparalleled time of tribulation as occurring in the midst of the 70th week, not the duration of it.
The final week of years is the completion of God's stated dealing with Israel for 490 years. If the crucifixion was the middle of the week, then there's a whole series of events that should have taken place that have not.
* Daniel 12:6-7 gives a period of 3 1/2 years until the holy people are scattered in the context of unparalleled time of tribulation earlier in Daniel 12:1. Note this unparalleled time by its nature must match up with that of Matthew 24:15 and Jeremiah 30:4-7.
* Daniel 12:11 gives a period of 1290 days from the abomination of desolation
Revelation 13:5 states the beast is given power for 42 months to make war with the saints. This lines up with the idea of scattering the power of the holy people and Revelation 12's account.
* Revelation 12:7-17 details the dragon coming to earth knowing he has a short time and attacking first Israel and after she is protected for 3 1/2 years, turns to the remnant and those holding the testimony of Christ. In context with the rest of these passages, this fits with the idea of the dragon giving the beast his power and focusing first on Israel in Judea, then after the saints of Israel are protected, moving globally.
* Daniel 7:25 speaks of the beast and his power over the saints, who are given into his hand for 3 1/2 years.
He will confirm the covenant. This same word used elsewhere to prevail, strengthen, make strong, bind up anything broken, make firm, act proudly toward God. I would argue that the new covenant was once for all and is as strong as it will ever be, for those who accept it. As Yeshua said, it is finished, and after He conquered death it was evident to everyone aware that the New Covenant, shining out of the foreshadow of the covenant with Israel made at Sinai, was a completed work that had defeated death.
What makes sense to me is a plain reading that the prophecy in context of Daniel's people and the holy city Jerusalem, it speaks to a strengthening of a covenant related to Israel and Jerusalem. Given that Israel has been blinded as of the triumphal entry (Matthew 23:39, Luke 19:41-44, Romans 11:1-28, John 12:40, 2 Corinthians 3:14), the strengthening of the covenant would fall in line with what would produce the declared event in the midst of the week, the stopping of the sacrifice and oblation.
In Christ, that was all done away with, but very often Christians talk about the third temple and sacrifices from a Christian perspective as though Israel is not still blinded. All you have to do is look at what is happening at the Temple Institute and orthodox Judaism to see they are working toward a third temple. It follows that if the 7 years determined for Israel and Jerusalem to complete these things consists of a stopping of the daily sacrifice and a confirmation or strengthening of the covenant to get there, that the starting of the sacrifice and oblation would be part of the strengthening of that covenant from Sinai.
Sacrifices and Offerings of the Mosaic Law - The daily sacrifice part of Mosaic covenant. (Leviticus 1, Leviticus 6:8-13, Numbers 28:3-29, Numbers 39) Therefore it would follow that the strengthening of the covenant tied to a stopping of the daily sacrifice in the midst of the week implies the strengthening had to do with the daily sacrifice beings stopped.
While the daily sacrifice was done away with the new covenant, God has a promise to fulfill in the remaining time designated for Israel and Jerusalem. I believe this is why the seals being opened allows the man of sin to start the 70th week of Daniel. It's While the covenant with many to bring back the daily sacrifice that will be stopped in the midst of the week is not necessary, Israel is blinded and will be until the fulness of the Gentiles at the catching away of the bride at Christ's coming at the day of the Lord.
The first seal is a rider on the white horse with a bow, the same word for "a token of a covenant" in Genesis 9:13, and a crown was given to him and he went forth to conquer. (See False Christ by Chris White) I think God is in control of the timing of His dealing with Israel, but uses their blindness and the dragon's desires (John 5:43) to use this time to refine Israel through fire.
The daily sacrifice did not stop until 70 AD when the city and temple were destroyed by the people of the prince that will come. 3 1/2 years prior to that and after it did not bring about the prophesied events Yeshua mentioned.
Matthew 24:14-15 Yeshua states that the Gospel of the kingdom will be preached to the whole world and then the end will come. This is immediately followed by "When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place"
I should clarify that I do believe Luke 21 account is different from Matthew's and Mark's accounts. Verse 12 diverges to a point previous to the start of the prophecy of the future by stating "but before all these…" and describes what I think is the time around 70 AD. It's like God wrote the Gospels to warn the faithful in Judea both in 70 AD and in the future after the abomination of desolation. It returns to the future prophetic time by stating "And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." The next verse is regarding the future sun, moon and star event of the sixth seal.
Yeshua puts the unparalleled time of great tribulation at the midst of the week Daniel spoke of. He also puts the sixth seal after the tribulation of those days. (Matthew 24:29-31, Luke 21:25, Mark 13:24-27) The signs of the sixth seal follow the time of Jacob's trouble and coincide with the sudden destruction of God's wrath. (Matthew 24:29-31, Mark 13:24-27, Isaiah 2:12-21, Isaiah 13:6-13, 1 Thessalonians 5:1-11)
From my understanding, this weaves a narrative that is found solely in scripture from several witnesses (Daniel, John, Yeshua) pointing to events that must logically be associated and exact day prophecies that define a framework that fits in with the compilation of those passages. Which leads to what your detailing of verse 24 prompted me to dig into some more.
I tend to take the English translation of the KJV because if I'm going to remember scriptures and search for them, the words matter to quickly reference them again so I decided to stick to one primary translation as that's what I started with. To be honest, I've assumed the meaning based on my understanding of English and not the context of where that Hebrew or Greek word was used elsewhere to define the meaning. So I decided to focus on that to better understand what these prophetic fulfillments meant in light of how these words are used elsewhere in scripture.
The Scope of the 70 Weeks
Regarding the scope, I've always taken the translation at face value, which I should know better. Context matters and I found this study quite revealing personally. Keep in mind throughout that the context of this prophecy is "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people (Israel) and upon thy holy city (Jerusalem)," not Christianity. I think this is an important differentiation from your perspective on these conditions. I tend to think temporally vs. eternally. I understand the difference, but I also know we are locked in space-time and while it may be done eternally before the creation, we are not in that dimension and prophecy is all about perspective in time related to God's plans for mankind.
To finish (h3607) the transgression (h6588)
* "Finish" - Occurs 19 times. Restrained = 4, shut up = 4, stayed = 3, withhold = 2, keep back = 2, forbid = 1, refrain = 1, retain = 1, finish = 1
* "Transgression" - Occurs 93 times used as transgressions, trespass, sin, rebellion against God, brothers,
Taken in context of the same word used throughout the Old Testament, it should better read "to restrain and shut up the transgression/sin." It seems pretty generic to restrain sin, so when is the transgression no longer restrained? Perhaps when the restrainer is taken out of the way? Calls to mind Michael the restrainer, who stands for the people of Israel, that is taken out of the way and triggering the abomination of desolation in the midst of the week. We are told this is an unparalleled time in Judea related to Israel and that it's the ultimate personification of transgression. It may have little to do with the temple, but rather with the man of sin, given power by the dragon, declaring himself to be god in the temple with great deception attempting to deceive the elect. It highlights the possibility that some such as Chris White have posited that the man of sin will present himself as the Jewish messiah, being the great deception, and literally coming in his own name and being accepted by Israel after rejecting the Messiah. John 5:43
To make an end (h2856) of sins (h2403) -
* "to make an end" - Occurs 27 times meaning seal = 24 and also stop, mark. This sounds pretty much like is translated in this verse.
* "sins" - Occurs 299 times and is self-explanatory, but is sometimes also many times referred to with the sin offering for atonement.
In context of the words used, this seems very hard to say was completed historically. Obviously generically it is not fulfilled, but even in the millennium there will be sin against God. However, this prophecy is focused on Israel and Jerusalem. The end of Israel's sins has not come to pass and God is not done with His chosen people. Jeremiah 31:31-40, Zechariah 13:8-9, Zechariah 12:10-14, Matthew 23:37-39. I think this ties in pretty well with the idea that many Christians have against a rebuilt temple. They say, "that was done away with by Christ!" I agree, but we live in a temporal world stuck in space-time. Israel is not there yet. They still corporately reject their Messiah and look to the old ways that were always insufficient and a foreshadow of the fulfillment in the chief cornerstone that was rejected. Until they recognize Him, they are atoning for sin old school, insufficiently. When they are taken to the wilderness and protected and the bride is caught up to meet the Messiah, the remnant that fled Judea will mourn for Him and be refined through the fire of God's wrath. They will come to accept Him and when the 1260 days of protection are fulfilled, they will enter into the promised land with their Messiah ruling and He will remember their sins no more.
To make reconciliation (h3722) for iniquity (h5771)
* "Reconciliation" - 103 times, make an atonement, much of the time in relation to the burnt offering, appease, pardon, pacify, sin purged
* "Iniquity" - 232 times, iniquity, punishment, mischief, sin
Looking at the context of other passages using these words, I would say this has a lot to do with making an end of sins through the burn offerings, through the acceptance of the ultimate sacrifice foreshadowed in the daily sacrifices. Reconciliation for iniquity may have happened 2,000 years ago, but in the context of Israel, they are blinded to it until they seek His face. Hosea 5:15
To bring in (h935) everlasting (h5769) righteousness (h6664)
* "bring in" - Occurs 2,591 times, brought/bring, came/come, went/go, enter
* "Everlasting" - Occurs 438 times, everlasting, forever, always, of old, perpetual, in the negative never
* "Righteousness" - Occurs 119 times, righteousness, just, justice, even [balance],
This is pretty self-explanatory based on the context where used. In the context of Israel and Jerusalem, it would seem this would be fulfilled at the end of the 70th week when Yeshua is ruling the earth from Jerusalem in the millennial temple Ezekiel describes and Israel is come out of the 70th week recognizing their Messiah and the eternal sacrifice that has redeemed them to Him.
To seal up (h2856) the vision (h2377) and prophecy (h5030)
* "seal up" - Occurs 27 times, same as "to make an end of sins" sealed, stopped, mark
* "the vision" - Occurs 35 times, vision in context of viewing and understanding what's to come
* "Prophecy" - Occurs 317 times, prophet(s)
In context of Israel and Jerusalem, the end of the 70 weeks is the natural and wild branches eternally connected/grafted to the root which is Christ. The Old Testament prophets had visions related to Israel such as this from Daniel and many times is clearly stated to be related to Israel. Once Israel has accepted Yeshua, there is no more dealing with Jew and Gentile in Christ apart from each other. Just dealing with the unbelieving world apart from God's eternal family from all nations, tribes and tongues.
To anoint (h4886) the most Holy (h6944)
* "Anoint" - Occurs 69 times, anoint (smear, spread liquid)
* "Most Holy" - Occurs 467 times, "most holy, or holy holy" in the temple where the ark of the covenant was placed, holy [ground, convocation, habitation, Sabbath, men, garments, place, things, crown, ], Holiness
This could be several things in context to the end of the 70th week appointed to Israel and Jerusalem. We know that Yeshua will rule the world with a rod of Iron from Jerusalem so it could be the anointing of His habitation there. Ezekiel speaks of a temple larger in scope than any historical temple in great detail and given the temple was to be crafted after the temple in heaven, the millennial temple and the most holy place from where Yeshua will reign could be anointed. This will be the start of the 7th day according to the Lord so it could be the anointing of the millennial Sabbath rest. It very well could be all of these things together, ushering in the millennial reign of Christ at the very end of the 70th week when Israel enters into the promised land accepting Yeshua as their Messiah and fulfilling the promise made to Israel and ending the prophecies and visions in the 7th day.
I'm aware of hard-held beliefs based on the point I started focusing on Bible prophecy and I'm ready to assert that I'm wrong. I have been many times and I will be again I'm sure. I'm not afraid to change my perspective as I grow in my understanding of God's Word. I agree there is no 7-year tribulation and my perspective is distinctly pre-wrath, defined outside the constraints of the term tribulation. However, I am also distinctly futurist in my view because the promises are not fully realized, for both Israel and the bride.
May God continue to bless you as you remain in Him.